Culture, Leadership and Individual Performance - A South African Public Service Organization Study
The South African (SA) government, like many in developing countries, is subject to various pressures as it tries to address transformation for better service delivery. The aforementioned has an implication on the type of culture created in the Public Sector and type of leaders required to maximise resources for effective and efficient delivery of services. Through an exploratory survey among a convenient cluster sample of respondents in specific public sectors organizations in SA, using predeveloped and validated questionnaires (OCA; MLQ; IWPQ), it became evident that transformational and transactional leadership have a significant relationship with organisational culture, even though there is no significant correlation between the “power” culture, “task” culture and performance measures. Transactional leadership showed a high direct effect on individual performance, compared to transformational leadership. The primary implication for service delivery is that appointments to leadership positions in the South African public service should be on the basis of assessments rather than ‘comradeship.’
1.Alexandre, C. An Idiographic analysis of new public management/leader and traditional public management/leadership. DTech PM Dissertation, 2007, Cape Peninsula University, Cape Town, South Africa; 303p.
2.Yukl, G.; Yukl, A. Leadership in Organizations Global Edition, 8th ed.; Pearson:UK, 2012; 528p.
3.Viljoen, K.; Klopper, H.B. Strategic organisational transformation:The role of learning, leadership and culture. SM - Leadership, 2001,1, pp.51 - 57.
4. Robbins, S. & Judge, T. Organisational Behaviour: Global Edition, 15th ed.; Pearsons: South Africa, 2012; 720 p.
5.Cakata, N. An analysis of service delivery challanges in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa: The case of Mnquma Local Municipality (2005-2010). MPM Dissertation: University of Fort Hare, East London, South Africa, 2011; 235p.
6.Schimmoeller, L.J. Leadership Styles in Competing Organizational Cultures. Leadership Rev, 2010,10, pp.125-41.
7. Schein, E. Organisational Culture and Leadership, 3rd ed.; John Wiley and Sons: San Francisco, 2004; 372 p.
8. Fatsha, L.M. Leveraging Leadership Factors to drive culture change. MBA Dissertation: University of Stellenboch, Stellenboch, South Africa, 2012; 120p.
9. Powe, J. When the going gets tough: Public service leadership in times of significant change and uncertainty. Int. J. of Leadership in Pub. Serv., 2010, 6(4), pp.9-17.
10.Naidoo, J. Is South Africa losing the battle. [Online] Available at: http://www.jaynaidoo.org/is-south-africa-losing-the-battle/ [Accessed 15 February 2014].
11.Dr Khoza, R. Chairman's Report. [Online] Available at: http://www.nedbankgroup.co.za/financial/Nedbank_ar2011/group/chairmans_report.asp [Accessed 22 August 2013].
12.ANC. Leadership renewal, discipline and organizational culture. [Online] Available at: http://www.anc.org.za/docs/discus/2010/leadershipn.pdf [Accessed 20 August 2013].
13.Department of Perfomance Monitoring and Evaluation. State of management practices in the Public Service:Results of management performance assessments for the 2012/13 financial year. Pretoria: The Presidency; Republic of South Africa, 2013; 210p.
14.Dartey-Baah, K.; Amponsah-Tawiah, K.; Sekyere-Abankwa, V. Leadership and Organisational Culture: Relevance in Public Sector Organisations in Ghanna. Bus. and Man. Rev., 2011, 1(4), pp.59-65.
15.Ogbonna, E. & Harris, C. Leadership style, organisational culture and performance: emperical evidence from UK companies. Int. J of HRM, 2000,11(4), pp.766-88.
16.Moleketi, G.F. Public Sector Leadership in the 21st Century, CAPAM: Cape Town, 2000; 20p.
17.Aziz, S.F.A.; Silong, A.D.; Karim, N.A.A.; Hassan, H. Leadership Practices in Public Sector in Selected Countries: An Integrative Literature Review. J of Man. Policy and Prac., 2012, 13(1), pp.113-26.
18.Raga, K.; Taylor, D. Impact of accountable and ethics on public service delivery: A South African Perspective. The Public Man., 2005, pp. 22-26.
19.Public Service Commission (PSC). State of the Public Service Report: Integration, Cooordination and Effective Public Service Delivery. Governmnet Printer: Pretoria, 2010;
20.Public Service Commission (PSC). Assessing the effectiveness of training provided by PALAMA in improving skills and competencies of public service leadership with a view to inform curriculum development by the national school of government. Governmnet Printers: Pretoria, 2014;
21.Tsai, L. Relationship between Organizational Culture, Leadership Behavior and Job Satisfaction. BMC Health Serv. Res., 2011, 11(98), pp. 14-19.
22.Matshiqi, A. Public Service Performance: Towards and better life for all. Policy: Issues and Factors, 2007, 20(5), pp.1-25.
23.Deresky, H. International Management: Managing Across Borders and Cultures. 8th ed.; Pearsons: New Jersey, 2014; .
24.McNeil, J. Hofstedes Organizational Culture Dimensions. [Online] Available at: http://www.slideshare.net/jeffmcneill/mcneill-2007-hofstedes-organizational-culture-dimensions [Accessed 30 August 2013].
25.Lok, P. ; Crawford, J. The effect of organisational culture and leadership style on job satisfaction and organisational commitment: A cross-national comparison. J of Man. Dev., 2004, 23(4), pp.321-38.
26.African National Congress (ANC). ANC Draft National Cultural Policy. [Online] Available at: http://www.africa.upenn.edu/Govern_Political/ANC_Cult.html [Accessed 13 December 2014].
27.Katz, L. Organizational versus National Culture. [Online] Available at: http://www.leadershipcrossroads.com/mat/Organizational vs National Culture.pdf [Accessed 30 August 2013].
28.Suttner, R. Culturre(s) of the African National Congress of South Africa: Imprint of Exile Experiences. J of Contemp. African Stud., 2003, 21(2), pp.303 - 320.
29.Shain, M.. Book Review: What's gone wrong? On the brink of a failed state by Alex Boraine. The J of the Helen Suzman Foundation, (73), 2014, pp.64-66.
30.National Union of Mineworkers of South Africa (NUMSA). Careerism and self interest are killing the culture of the ANC. [Online] Available at: http://www.numsa.org.za/article/careerism-and-selfinterest-are-killing-the-culture-of-the-anc/ [Accessed 27 August 2015].
31.African National Congress (ANC). ANC leadership in the current phase of the National Democratic Revolution: ANC Limpopo Discussion Document. [Online] Available at: http://www.anc.org.za/docs/discus/2012/disc_doce.pdf [Accessed 15 August 2015].
32.Mantashe, G. Organisational Report of the National Executive Committee to the 53rd National Conference by Secretary General. ANC: Mangaung, Free State Province, 2012; 150p.
33.Akinboade, O.A.; Mokwena, M.P.; Kinfack, E.C. Understanding citizens' participation in service delivery protests in South Africa's Sedibeng district municipality. Int. J of Soc. Econ., 40(5), 2013, pp.458-78.
34.Chipkin, I.; Lipietz, B. Transforming South Africa's Racial Bureaucracy: New Public Management and Public Sector Reform in Contemporary South Africa. Public Affairs Research Institute: Johannesburg, 2012 28p.
35.Nazarian, A.; Irani, Z. ; Ali, M. The Relationship between National Culture and Organisational Culture: The Case of Iranian Private Sector Organisations. J of Eco., Bus. and Man., 2013, 1(1), pp.11-15.
36.National Treasury: Republic of South Africa. Provincial Budgets and Expenditure Review, FormeSet Printers Cape (Pty) Ltd: Pretoria, 2014; 449p.
37.Gauteng Province. Gauteng Online: Annual Reports. [Online] Available at: http://www.gautengonline.gov.za/Pages/PublicationsandReports.aspx [Accessed 10 April 2015].
38.Leedy, P.D & Omrod, J.E. Practical Research: Planning and Design. 10th ed. Pearsons: US, 2012; 384p.
39.Harrison, R.; Stokes, H. Diagnosing Organziational Culture. 1st ed.; John Willy and Sons: New York, 1992; 605p.
40.Bass, B.M.; Avolio, B.J. Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire. 3rd ed.; Mind Garden, Inc.: Binghamton, 2004; 24p.
41.Dulewicz, V.; Higgs, M. Assessing leadership styles and organisational context. J of Managerial Psych., 2005, 20(2), pp.105-23.
42.Koopmans, L. Development of an individual work performance questionnaire. Int. J of Prod. and Perf. Man., 2012, 62(1), pp.6-28.
43.Ramchunder, Y.; Martins, N. The role of self-efficacy, emotional intelligence and leadership style as attributes of leadership effectiveness. SA J of Ind. Psych., 4(1), 2014, pp.1100-11.
44.Viswesvaran, C.; Ones, D. Perspectives on Models of Job Performance. Int. J of Selection and Ass., 8(4), 2002, pp.216 - 226.
45.Field, A.P. Discovering statistics using SPSS. 2nd ed. London: Sage, 2005.
46.Kanste, O.; Miettunen, J.; Kyngas, H. Psychometric properties of the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire among nurses. J of Adv. Nursing, 57(2), 2006, pp.201 - 212.
47.Koopmans, L. Construct Validity of the Individual Work Performance Questionnaire. J of Occup. and Environ. Medicine, 56(3), 2004, pp.331-37.
48.Xenikou, A.; Simosi, M., 2006. Organizational culture and transformational leadership as predictors of business unit performance. J of Man. Psych., 2006, 21(6), pp.566-79.
49.Vielmetter, G.: Sell, Y. Leadership 2030: The six megatrends you need to manage your company, HayGroup: NY, 2011; 264p.
50.Behn, R.D. Performance Leadership: 11 better practices that can rachet up performance, IBM Center for The Business of Government: Cambridge, 2006; 30p.
51.Zehir, C.; Ertosun, Ö.G.; Zehir, S.; Müceldili, B. The Effects of Leadership Styles and Organizational Cultur eover Firm Performance: Multi-National Companies in Istanbul. Procedia Social and Behav. Sc., 2011, 24, pp.1460 - 1474.
52.Imran, R.; Zahoor, F.; Zaheer, A. Leadership and Performance Relationship: Culture Matters. Int. J of Inn., Man. and Tech., 2012, 3(6), pp.713 - 717.
53.Dorasamy, N. Enhancing an ethical culture through purpose directed leadership for improved PUBLIC service delivery: A case for South Africa. African J of Bus. Man., 2009, 4(1), pp.56-64.