Modelling of an MHD system to investigate an ionised gas flow inside a rectangular duct
The magnetohydrodynamics, MHD system (direct energy conversion system) is an alternative system that can provide supplementary power to the existing conventional systems. This system can also be used to provide thrusting force for thrusters, which are usually difficult to pump using the conventional pumps and require high flow rates and velocity. In the present study, the focus is to investigate MHD generators and thrusters by performing a three-dimensional (3-D) simulation of an ionised gas (fluid) ﬂow inside a rectangular duct. The working fluid considered for this investigation is a propane gas, with electrical conductivity of 20 S/m. Subsequently, the gas flow is modelled numerically with different inflow velocities: 0.2 m/s, 0.5 m/s, 1 m/s, 2 m/s and 5 m/s and solve iteratively using the partial differential equations of electromagnetism and fluid dynamics in Comsol Multiphysics 5.1 Software. As the different inflow velocities of the fluid move along the duct, they are decelerated by the applied magnetic field (1.41 T). Thereafter, the fluid flow is again studied analytically under the magnetic fields of 1.41 T and 5 T to generate electric power. From the numerical investigation, the velocity fields of the different inflow velocities along the duct length are found to decrease when the magnetic ﬁeld intensity is high. Conversely, the velocity magnitude of each inflow velocity, and the pressure gradient gradually increases at the center of the duct when an electric potential was applied across the electrodes. The MHD analysis performed in this work could be used to improve the propulsion of space-ships, efficiency of railway engines and electric power generation in South Africa.
1. Kaushik, S.C.; Verma, S.S.; Chandra, A. Solar-Assisted Liquid Metal MHD Power Generation: A state of the Art Study. Heat Recov Syst Chp. 1995, 15(7), 675-689.
2. Masood, B.; Riaz, M.H.; Yasir, M. Integration of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) power generating technology with thermal power plants for efficiency improvement. World Appl Sci J. 2014, 32(7), 1356-1363.
3. Ayeleso, A.O.; Kahn, M.T.E.; Raji, A.K. Plasma Energy Conversion System for Electric Power Generation. In 12th International Conference on the Industrial and Commercial Use of Energy, Cape Town, South Africa, August 2015, 1-6.
4. Ishikwa, M.; Yuhara, M.; Fujino, T. Three dimensional computational of Magnetohydrodynamics in a weekly ionized plasma with strong MHD interaction. J. Mater. Process. Technol. 2007, 181, 254-259.
5. Vishal, D.D.; Anand, S. The Future Power Generation with MHD Generators Magneto Hydrodynamics generation. Int. j. adv. electr. electron. Eng. 2013, 2(6), 2278-8948.
6. Kandev, N. Numerical Study of a DC Electromagnetic Liquid Metal Pump: Limits of the Model. Proceeding of the Comsol conference, Hannover, 2012.
7. Takeshita, S.; Buttapeng, C.; Harada, N. Characteristics of plasma produced by MHD technology and its application to propulsion systems. Vacuum. 2010, 84, 685-688.
8. Aoki, L.P.; Maunsell, M.G.; Schulz, H.E. A Magnetohydrodynamics study of behavior in an electrolyte fluid using numerical and experimental solutions. Therm. Eng. (Engenharia Termica). 2012, 11(1-2), 53-60.
9. Parsodkar, R.R. Magneto Hydrodynamics Generator. IJARCSSE. 2015, 5(3), 541-546.
10. Anwari, M.; Takahashi, S.; Harada, N. Performance Study of a Magnetohydrodynamic Accelerator Using Air-Plasma as Working Gas. Elsevier UK, Energy Convers. Manage. 2005, 46(15-16), 2605-2613.
11. Kaminaga, S.; Okuno, Y.; Yamasaki, H. Quasi-one Dimensional Analysis on MHD Energy Bypass Scramjet Engine Performance. AIAA paper. 2003, 2003-4286.
12. Harada, N.; Takahashy, S.; Lineberry, J.T. Comparative Study of Electrode Connections of an MHD Accelerator. AIAA paper. 2003, 2003-4288.
13. Sukarsan. Magnetohydrodynamic accelerator with equilibrium plasma. Master of Engineering thesis. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia, January 2009.
14. Ajith, K.R.; Jinshah, B.S. Magnetohydrodynamics Power Generation. IJSRP. 2013, 3(6), 1-11.
15. Ritchie, W. Experimental Researches in a voltaic electricity and electromagnetism. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. 1932, 122, 279-298.
16. Li, P.; Barry, G.; Castellanos, S.; Chan, C.; Do, K.; Gamez, C.; Kuhn, J.; Leon, A. Power Generation Using Magnetohydrodynamic Generator with a Circulation Flow Driven by Solar-Heat-Induced Natural Convection. 2007. Available online:
17. Mgbachi, C.A. Design Analysis of Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Electrical Power Generation Technology. IJOART. 2015, 4(10), 103-108.
18. Kayukawa, N. Open-cycle Magnetohydrodynamics electrical power generation: a review and future perspectives. Prog Energ Combust: 30. 2004, 33–60.
19. Salvatore, P.C.; Alessandra, P. Performance Analysis of Integrated Systems Based on MHD Generators. 68th Conference of the Italian Thermal Machines Engineering Association, ATI2013, Energy Procedia. 2014, 45, 1305 -1314.
20. Islam, Md.S.; Molla, N.H.; Quddus, E. Prospect of MHD Generation in Bangladesh. J. Eng. Res. Appl. 2013, 3(6), 745-748.
21. Goel, P.; Shukla, A. Magneto Hydrodynamics Power. IARJSET. 2015, 2(1), 105-107.
22. Sharma, S.; Gambhir, S. Magneto Hydro Dynamics Power Generation Techniques. IJCCR. 2015, 5(5), 1-10.
23. Velikhov, E.P.; Matveenko, O.G.; Panchenko, V.P.; Pismennyi, V.D.; Yakushev, A.A.; Pisakin, A.V.; Blokh, A.G.; Tkachenko, B.G.; Sergeenko, N.M. et al. Pulsed MHD Power System SAKHALIN—the World largest solid propellant fueled MHD generator of 500 MWe electric power output. In Proceedings of 13th International Conference on MHD Power Generation and High Temperature Technologies. 1999, 2, 387–398.
24. Kantrowitz, A.R.; Brogan, T.R.; Rosa, R.J.; Louis, J.F. The Magnetohydrodynamics power generator-basic principles, state of the art, and areas of application. IRE Trans. Mil. Electron. 1962, 6(1), 78-83.
25. STOCKHOLM. Description of magnetohydrodynamic generator using plasma as fluid of process. 2011, Available online: http://free.compute4.org/mhd-generator-pdf-s290/ (Accessed on 15th September 2016).
26. Winowich, N.S.; Ramos, I.J. Finite Difference and Finite Elements Methods for MHD Channel Flows. Int. J. Num. Meth. 1990, 11, 907-934.
27. Kandev, N.; Daoud, A. Magneto-hydrodynamics numerical study of DC electromagnetic pump for liquid metal. Proceeding of the Comsol conference, Hannover, 2008.
28. Andreev, O.; Kolesnikov, A. Experimental study of Liquid Metal Channel Flow under the Influence of a Nonuniform magnetic field. Phys. Fluids, 2006, 18, 065108.
29. Gedik, E.; Kurt, H.; Recebli, Z. CFD Simulation of Magnetohydrodynamic Flow of a Liquid-Metal Galinstan Fluid in Circular Pipes. Tech Science Press, FDMP. 2013, 9(1), 23-33.
30. Altintas, A.; Ozkol, I. Magnetohydrodynamics flow of liquid-Metal in circular pipes for externally heated and non-heated cases. J. Appl. Fluid. Mech. 2015, 8(3), 507-514.
31. Ayeleso, A.O.; Kahn, M.T.E.; Raji, A.K. Computational Fluid Domain simulation of MHD flow of an Ionised Gas inside a Rectangular Duct. In 13th International Conference on the Industrial and Commercial Use of Energy. Cape Town, South Africa, 2016.
32. Fatouh, M.; Kafafy, M. El. Experimental evaluation of a domestic refrigerator working with LPG. Int. J. APPL. THERM. ENG. 2006, 26(14–15), 1593–1603.
33. Jeffrey, L.S. Characterization of the coal resources of South Africa. J. South. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall, 2005, 95-102.
34. Altıntas, A.; Davidson, L. Direct numerical simulation analysis of spanwise oscillating Lorentz
35. Comsol Multiphysics. CFD Module User Guide Version 5.1. 1-638, 2015.
36. Ahsan, M. Numerical analysis of friction factor for a fully developed turbulent flow using k-ε turbulence model with enhanced wall treatment. BJBAS. 2014, 3, 269-277.
37. Al-Habahbeh, O.M.; Al-Saqqa, M; Saﬁ, M.; Abo Khater, T. Review of magnetohydrodynamic pump applications. AEJ. 2016, 55, 1347-1358.